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65. What is Decorator Pattern

Decorator Pattern is a structural design pattern that allows behavior to be added to an individual object or a class of objects without affecting the behavior of other objects from the same class. It decorates an object with additional capabilities without changing its underlying structure. The idea is to wrap an existing object with a decorator that provides additional functionality.

The decorator pattern has four main components:

  • Component: defines an interface for objects that can have responsibilities added to them dynamically.
  • Concrete Component: defines an object that can have additional responsibilities added to it dynamically.
  • Decorator: maintains a reference to the Component object and defines an interface that conforms to Component’s interface.
  • Concrete Decorator: adds responsibilities to the Component.

The Decorator Pattern is useful when you want to add responsibilities to objects at runtime. This pattern is used in GUI frameworks to provide customization options to the users. It is a flexible alternative to subclassing.