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149. Tell me more about Unicode and UTF-8

Unicode is a character set that defines a unique number (code point) for every character, symbol, and punctuation mark in every writing system in the world. UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format, 8-bit) is a variable-length encoding scheme that encodes every Unicode code point in one to four bytes, depending on its value. UTF-8 can encode any character in the Unicode standard, yet it is backward-compatible with ASCII. In other words, any ASCII-encoded text file is also a valid UTF-8 text file.

UTF-8 has become the dominant character encoding for the web, as it can represent every known character in the world with minimal overhead. It is also the default encoding for many programming languages, including JavaScript, PHP, Python, and Ruby. UTF-8 is recommended for use in HTML, XML, and other markup languages, as it can handle any language or writing system in the world.